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Document Type: Artigo
Title: BALB/c mice infected with antimony treatment refractory isolate of Leishmania braziliensis present severe lesions due to IL-4 production
Authors: Costa, Diego Luis
Carregaro, Vanessa
Lima Júnior, Djalma Souza de
Silva, Neide Maria da
Milanezi, Cristiane Maria
Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro de Barros
Giudice, Ângela
Jesus, Amélia Maria Ribeiro de
Carvalho Filho, Edgar Marcelino de
Almeida, Roque Pacheco de
Silva, João Santana da
Issue Date: Feb-2011
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Leishmania braziliensis is the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Protection against infection is related to development of Th1 responses, but the mechanisms that mediate susceptibility are still poorly understood. Murine models have been the most important tools in understanding the immunopathogenesis of L. major infection and have shown that Th2 responses favor parasite survival. In contrast, L. braziliensis–infected mice develop strong Th1 responses and easily resolve the infection, thus making the study of factors affecting susceptibility to this parasite difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe an experimental model for the evaluation of the mechanisms mediating susceptibility to L. braziliensis infection. BALB/c mice were inoculated with stationary phase promastigotes of L. braziliensis, isolates LTCP393(R) and LTCP15171(S), which are resistant and susceptible to antimony and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Mice inoculated with LTCP393(R) presented larger lesions that healed more slowly and contained higher parasite loads than lesions caused by LTCP15171(S). Inflammatory infiltrates in the lesions and production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β were similar in mice inoculated with either isolate, indicating that these factors did not contribute to the different disease manifestations observed. In contrast, IL-4 production was strongly increased in LTCP393(R)-inoculated animals and also arginase I (Arg I) expression. Moreover, anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment resulted in decreased lesion thickness and parasite burden in animals inoculated with LTCP393(R), but not in those inoculated with LTCP15171(S). CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the ability of L. braziliensis isolates to induce Th2 responses affects the susceptibility to infection with these isolates and contributes to the increased virulence and severity of disease associated with them. Since these data reflect what happens in human infection, this model could be useful to study the pathogenesis of the L. braziliensis infection, as well as to design new strategies of therapeutic intervention.
Keywords: Leishmania
Leishmania braziliensis
Sponsorship: This study was supported by the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP). JSS, EMC, ARJ and RPA are investigators from the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Publisher / Institution : Public Library of Science
Citation: COSTA, D. L. et al. BALB/c mice infected with antimony treatment refractory isolate of Leishmania braziliensis present severe lesions due to IL-4 production. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, San Francisco, v. 5, n. 3, fev. 2011. Disponível em: <>. Acesso em: 19 fev. 2014.
License: Creative Commons Attribution License
Appears in Collections:DME - Artigos publicados em periódicos

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